Several Distinct Categories of Automobile Suspension Springs are Used in the Suspension

Suspension Spring

The vehicle’s wheels are attached to the body of the vehicle using suspension springs. The primary responsibility of suspension springs is to level off bumps and undulations in the road, which helps maintain a high degree of ride comfort. Second, regardless of the state of the roadway, they are responsible for ensuring that the wheels maintain secure contact with it at all times. Certain requirements must be satisfied for the transfer of driving, braking, and transverse forces to occur reliably. Therefore, suspension springs are one of the most significant components contributing to contemporary automobiles’ safety. They affect how the car steers, how well it grips the road, and how well it brakes.
Reading this article will teach you about the many different kinds of suspension springs used in motor vehicles.

Different varieties of suspension springs

The five most prevalent kinds of suspension springs found in vehicles are described in the following paragraphs.

1. Leaf springs
2. Coil spring
3. Spring with a torsion
4. Airbags
5. Rubber spring

Suspension Springs
Image Source: The Engineers Post

Leaf springs

The leaves of a leaf spring are constructed of the steel plate and are arranged in a spiral that extends outward from the spring’s core. Each of the leaves is held in place by a center bolt located in the middle of the leaf and side bolts nearly on each leaf’s side. The primary leaf, also called the spring eyes, is the one that is longer and has bent ends at both ends. A shackle connects the spring eye to the frame of the device. The front axle and the middle piece of the spring are joined together by a U-bolt.

Different kinds of leaf suspension springs

The following is a list of the many different kinds of leaf springs:

1. Semi-elliptical spring
2. Quarter-elliptical spring
3. Elliptical spring with a three-quarter turn
4. Transverse spring
5. Full elliptical spring
6. A spring of the platform kind

leaf springs
Image Source: 4 Wheel Parts

Semi-elliptical spring

Semi-elliptical springs are commonplace in the undercarriage of every vehicle. The vehicle’s front and rear axles are particularly common locations for trucks’ semi-elliptical springs. However, when it comes to vehicles, they are only mounted on the rear axle, as the front axle features an independent suspension system. Semi-elliptical springs are more convenient and less expensive to maintain than other spring shapes. They lengthen the spring action range and last for a considerable time.

Quarter-elliptical spring

Quarter-elliptical springs were used in older models of automobiles like Chryslers and other tiny vehicles. This elliptical spring is attached to the frame through bolts and is just a small fraction of the size of a complete elliptical spring.

Suspension Springs 2
Image Source: SlidePlayer

Elliptical spring with a three-quarter turn

A three-quarter elliptical spring combines the characteristics of a semi-elliptical spring with a quarter-elliptical spring. In earlier models of autos, it was usual to find this type of spring.

Transverse spring

The form of a transverse spring is analogous to that of a semi-elliptical spring; the only difference is that the transverse spring is inverted. Shackles attach one end of the spring to the frame of the chassis while the other is attached to the axle. It is also secured to the frame by bolts in the middle.

Suspension Springs 3
Image Source: The Jalopy Journal

Full elliptical spring

Complete elliptical springs are constructed by connecting two semi-elliptical springs in reverse order to form the full elliptical shape. In earlier autos, you might find this type of spring installed. They are unable to maintain the correct alignment of the axles. Platform type spring.

A spring of the platform kind

Platform-type springs are comprised of a pair of semi-elliptical springs. On one side, they include a shackle that connects to the chassis frame, and on the opposite side, they feature an inverted semi-elliptical spring. The vehicle’s weight is spread over three points when configured in this manner.

Coil spring

Coil spring
Image Source:

Spring steel is the material that is utilized while making coil springs. One term that might be used to describe this is the independent suspension system. They can produce a wide range of spring rates while functioning in constrained environments. Compared to leaf springs, they only require a weight that is half what is necessary to fulfill the same function.
They can also store twice as much energy per unit volume as leaf springs. However, anti-roll bars or radius roads must be supplied to regulate accelerating, halting, and cornering. The pan-shaped brackets, also known as spring seats, are fastened to the rear axles, and the coil spring is placed inside them. Similarly, spring seats that are an integral part of the frame are used to force springs against them. In addition, a torque tube or a torque rod drive may be implemented in combination with the suspension. In terms of the amount of energy they can store, coil and torsion bar springs perform better than leaf springs (energy stored in a given spring weight).

Spring with a torsion

Spring with a torsion
Image Source: Engineering Choice

A torsion spring is one of the components that may be found in an independent suspension system. In a torsion suspension spring, a rod acts under torsion by receiving shear stresses. The bearing supports one end of the bar, which is attached to the frame, while the other is attached to the wheel arm. The end of the wheel arm is connected to the wheel hub in some way. When the wheel comes into contact with a bump, it starts to shake up and down, which causes the torsion bar to perform the function of a spring.


Foreign autos have airbags and rubber springs. Automobiles manufactured in other countries frequently have air suspension, hydraulic suspension, and hydrogen gas suspension systems.

Image Source: Autowise

Rubber spring

Regarding suspension, rubber springs are favored over steel springs since they save more energy than steel springs per unit of weight. On the other hand, rubber springs are smaller in volume than other springs. One of the primary advantages of using a rubber spring rather than a steel one is that, in contrast to steel, it does not suddenly break, which results in a lower level of danger. In addition to that, it possesses excellent vibration-damping qualities.

Helper Spring

A helper spring is very much like a semi-elliptical spring except that it does not have eyes at the ends of the spring. Main springs are installed, particularly on the truck’s rear axle, to support the substantial weight. When the truck carries a significant amount of weight, the ends of the helper spring will come into contact with the brackets that have been mounted on the frame.

Additional Varieties of Suspension Springs

The following kind of suspension springs are the most common ones seen in contemporary automobiles:

• Mini-block springs

• Banana-shaped side load springs

• Cylindrical suspension springs

• Inconstant wire suspension springs

• Banana-shaped side load springs

Mini block springs
Image Source: Automotive Technology

Cylindrical springs of the suspension
These are cylindrical suspension springs with a linear spring rate that is the standard.
Springs for suspension that are not consistently made of wire
As the suspension spring is wound farther and further, the diameter of the wire utilized in this sort of spring gets smaller. Under typical driving circumstances and loads, the soft ends of the spring may be depended on to provide exceptionally pleasant ride characteristics. This not only makes the ride more comfortable but also lowers the amount of stress that is placed on the steering components and the entire wheel suspension system.

Mini block springs 1
Image Source: Wikipedia

Mini-block springs are fashioned like a barrel. When making them, a wire with a tapered end is required. As a consequence of this, they produce a spring rate that increases gradually. The ends of the springs are constructed in such a way as to avoid windings from coming into direct touch with one another.
When the springs are loaded, the windings at the ends entangle without actually coming into contact with one another. This is the defining characteristic of mini-block springs, produced in the 1970s from an inconstant wire. When the ends of the mini-block springs are squeezed together and rest flat on the spring cups, the number of active windings reduces, and the spring rate rises (which is normally made of a rubber block).
Side load springs in the form of bananas
This type of spring, which lowers the friction between the shock absorber‘s piston rod and its gasket, controls the force distribution for the entire wheel suspension. This contributes to the improvement of the reaction properties of the shock absorber.

Mini block springs 2
Image Source: ENDURO Mountainbike Magazine


Automobiles include suspension springs to help adjust for bumps and rough road conditions. This results in a high level of comfort for the driver when they are behind the wheel. The most frequent types of springs found in automobiles include airbags, rubber springs, leaf springs, coil springs, and torsion springs. Torsion springs are also sometimes utilized. This concludes the discussion of the many different kinds of suspension springs covered in this article.
I hope you got a lot out of the reading, and if you did, would you please share what you learned with the other students? Thank you for taking the time to read; I’ll see you around!

Mia A Chloe
Author: Mia A Chloe

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